Archive | PowerShell

Using Azure Resource Graph for your inventory script

In the past I have always run Get-AzureRmResourceGroup, and then looped through all the resources groups and the VMs inside of them. This can be slow. So I put together this script to leverage Azure Resource Graph for your inventory. I hope this helps some one:

$everything=$(Search-AzureRmGraph -Query "where type != ''" -First 5000)
while ($($everything.Count) % 5000 -eq 0) { 
$everything=$everything + $(Search-AzureRmGraph -Query "where type != ''" -Skip $($everything.Count))

$VMs=$everything | Where {$_.type -contains 'Microsoft.Compute/virtualMachines'} 
$NICs=$everything | Where {$_.type -contains ''} 
$pubIPs = $everything | Where {$_.type -contains ''}
$NSGs= $everything | Where {$_.type -contains ''}
$VMSizes = @()
$locations=$VMs | Select location -Unique
foreach ($location in $($locations.location)){
$sizes=get-azurermvmsize -location $location | Select @{Name="Location";Expression={$location}},Name,NumberOfCores,MemoryInMB,MaxDataDiskCount,OSDiskSizeInMB,ResourceDiskSizeInMB

$output=$VMs `
| select *,@{N='vmSize';E={$}} `
| select *,@{N='CurrentSku';E={$s=$_.VMSize;$l=$_.location;$VMSizes | where {$_.Location -eq $l -and $_.Name -eq $s}}} `
| select *,@{N='NumberOfCores';E={$_.CurrentSku.NumberOfCores}} `
| select *,@{N='MemoryInMB';E={$_.CurrentSku.MemoryInMB}} `
| select *,@{N='MaxDataDiskCount';E={$_.CurrentSku.MaxDataDiskCount}} `
| select *,@{N='ResourceDiskSizeInMB';E={$_.CurrentSku.ResourceDiskSizeInMB}} `
| select *,@{N='NICInfo';E={$NICId=$;$NICs | Where {$  -eq $NICId }}} `
| select *,@{N='NicName';E={(($_.NICInfo).Name)}} `
| select *,@{N='NSGID';E={(($_.NICInfo).properties)}} `
| select *,@{N='NSGInfo';E={$NSGID=$_.NSGID;($NSGs | Where {$_.Id -eq $NSGID}).Properties}} `
| select *,@{N='securityRules';E={(($_.NSGInfo).securityRules).Name}} `
| select *,@{N='PrivIP';E={(((($_.NICInfo).Properties).ipConfigurations[0]).properties).privateIPAddress}} `
| select *,@{N='PubIPID';E={(((($_.NICInfo).Properties).ipConfigurations[0]).properties) }} `
| select *,@{N='PubIPInfo';E={$PUBIPID=$_.PubIPID;($pubIPs | Where {$_.Id -eq $PUBIPID}).Properties}} `
| select *,@{N='publicIPAllocationMethod';E={(($_.PubIPInfo)).publicIPAllocationMethod}} `
| select *,@{N='publicIPAddress';E={(($_.PubIPInfo).ipAddress)}}

This pulls back everything and then you can pull out what you want.


Add a Document to CosmosDB via the REST API using PowerShell

There are a lot of examples out there on how to POST a document to Cosmos DB, but they weren’t working for me. I kept getting a 400 Bad Request. After far to long, I finally got it to work. I need the “x-ms-documentdb-partitionkey” header to make it work.

Code for anyone who needs it (I hacked the original code here that wasn’t working for me):

Function Generate-MasterKeyAuthorizationSignature{
	$hmacSha256 = New-Object System.Security.Cryptography.HMACSHA256
	$hmacSha256.Key = [System.Convert]::FromBase64String($key)

	If ($resourceLink -eq $resourceType) {
		$resourceLink = ""

	$payLoad = "$($verb.ToLowerInvariant())`n$($resourceType.ToLowerInvariant())`n$resourceLink`n$($dateTime.ToLowerInvariant())`n`n"
	$hashPayLoad = $hmacSha256.ComputeHash([System.Text.Encoding]::UTF8.GetBytes($payLoad))
	$signature = [System.Convert]::ToBase64String($hashPayLoad)


Code above just creates the auth header and is called below:

Function Post-CosmosDocuments{
	$ResourceType = "docs";
	$ResourceLink = "dbs/$DBName/colls/$CollectionName"
    $partitionkey = "[""$(($JSON |ConvertFrom-Json).id)""]"

	$dateTime = [DateTime]::UtcNow.ToString("r")
	$authHeader = Generate-MasterKeyAuthorizationSignature -verb $Verb -resourceLink $ResourceLink -resourceType $ResourceType -key $MasterKey -keyType "master" -tokenVersion "1.0" -dateTime $dateTime
	$header = @{authorization=$authHeader;"x-ms-version"="2015-12-16";"x-ms-documentdb-partitionkey"=$partitionkey;"x-ms-date"=$dateTime}
	$contentType= "application/json"
	$queryUri = "$EndPoint$ResourceLink/docs"

    [Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
	$result = Invoke-RestMethod -Method $Verb -ContentType $contentType -Uri $queryUri -Headers $header -Body $JSON 

And to run the functions above:

$CosmosDBEndPoint = ""
$DBName = "yourDB"
$CollectionName = "YourCollection"
$MasterKey = "YourPrimaryKey"

Post-CosmosDocuments -EndPoint $CosmosDBEndPoint -MasterKey $MasterKey -DBName $DBName -CollectionName $CollectionName -JSON ($SomeObject | ConvertTo-Json)

The key was to set the correct contentType and add “x-ms-documentdb-partitionkey” to the headers. This needs to match what your set your DB up with. I am useing “id”

As a bonus, here is the code to query a DB. Leveraging the same first function to create the auth header:

Function Query-CosmosDocuments{
	$ResourceType = "docs";
	$ResourceLink = "dbs/$DBName/colls/$CollectionName"
  "query": "SELECT * FROM contacts c WHERE = @id",  
  "parameters": [  
      "name": "@id",  
      "value": "$(($JSON |ConvertFrom-Json).id)"  

	$dateTime = [DateTime]::UtcNow.ToString("r")
	$authHeader = Generate-MasterKeyAuthorizationSignature -verb $Verb -resourceLink $ResourceLink -resourceType $ResourceType -key $MasterKey -keyType "master" -tokenVersion "1.0" -dateTime $dateTime
	$header = @{authorization=$authHeader;"x-ms-version"="2015-12-16";"x-ms-documentdb-isquery"="True";"x-ms-date"=$dateTime}
	$contentType= "application/query+json"
	$queryUri = "$EndPoint$ResourceLink/docs"

    [Net.ServicePointManager]::SecurityProtocol = [Net.SecurityProtocolType]::Tls12
	$result = Invoke-RestMethod -Method $Verb -ContentType $contentType -Uri $queryUri -Headers $header -Body $query 
    return $result

Hope that helps someone


Connecting to the Azure REST API from an Azure Automation RunBook

I was looking for data that I couldn’t find in a PowerShell command, so I needed an access token to run a query against an Azure API.

I was stuck with the basic problem of how do I query the Azure REST endpoints from a RunBook. In my last post, I just learned that you can use the RunAs account for the AutomationAccount in an “Login-AzureRmAccount” session:

$connection = Get-AutomationConnection -Name AzureRunAsConnection
$loginresults=Login-AzureRmAccount -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $connection.TenantID `
-ApplicationId $connection.ApplicationID -CertificateThumbprint $connection.CertificateThumbprint

Taking that a step further, I can then get an access token from the logged in context, and use that with an REST API call:

$connection = Get-AutomationConnection -Name AzureRunAsConnection
$loginresults=Login-AzureRmAccount -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $connection.TenantID `
-ApplicationId $connection.ApplicationID -CertificateThumbprint $connection.CertificateThumbprint

$context = Get-AzureRmContext
$SubscriptionId = $context.Subscription
$cache = $context.TokenCache
$cacheItem = $cache.ReadItems()
$AccessToken=$cacheItem[$cacheItem.Count -1].AccessToken

$headerParams = @{'Authorization'="Bearer $AccessToken"}
$results=Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $url -Headers $headerParams -Method Get
Write-Output $results.value

Hope that helps someone !


Azure Runbook to enable Auto-Shutdown for New VMs

I have an azure lab subscription (as do you, I am sure). In this lab, I am always provisioning and deleting and scaling VMs. In order to keep my costs down, I want to enable the AutoShutdown feature on all new VMs. I can do that easily with an ARM template. But for machines that aren’t provisioned by one of my templates, I always forget to enable the Auto-Shutdown.

Here is code to loop through all of your machines and enable the Auto-Shutdown setting. I know there other ways to do this, but I wanted it to be visible when looking at the VM (in the Auto-Shutdown section).

Take this code and put it in an Azure Automation RunBook, and it will run every night (I run it an hour before the AutoShutdow time!)

Also, I have never used runbooks before, so I learned that you need lines 1 & 2 to connect to Azure as the Azure Automation RunAs account (no passwords in code!)

Here is the code:

$connection = Get-AutomationConnection -Name AzureRunAsConnection
$loginresults=Login-AzureRmAccount -ServicePrincipal -Tenant $connection.TenantID `
-ApplicationId $connection.ApplicationID -CertificateThumbprint $connection.CertificateThumbprint

foreach ($rg in $((Get-AzureRmResourceGroup).ResourceGroupName)){
foreach ($vm in $(Get-AzureRmVM -ResourceGroupName $rg)){
$shutdown_time = "22:00"
$shutdown_timezone = "Eastern Standard Time"
$properties = @{
    "status" = "Enabled";
    "taskType" = "ComputeVmShutdownTask";
    "dailyRecurrence" = @{"time" = $shutdown_time };
    "timeZoneId" = $shutdown_timezone;
    "notificationSettings" = @{
        "status" = "Disabled";
        "timeInMinutes" = 30
    "targetResourceId" = $VM.Id
$Status=(Get-AzureRmResource -ResourceId ("/subscriptions/{0}/resourceGroups/{1}/providers/microsoft.devtestlab/schedules/shutdown-computevm-{2}" -f (Get-AzureRmContext).Subscription.Id, $rg, $vm.Name) -ErrorAction stop).Properties.Status
write-output "Setting $($vm.Name) to auto shutdown @ $shutdown_time (was never enabled)"
New-AzureRmResource -ResourceId ("/subscriptions/{0}/resourceGroups/{1}/providers/microsoft.devtestlab/schedules/shutdown-computevm-{2}" -f (Get-AzureRmContext).Subscription.Id, $rg, $vm.Name) -Location $vm.Location -Properties $properties -Force
if ($Status -eq "Disabled"){
write-output "Setting $($vm.Name) to auto shutdown @ $shutdown_time (was disbaled)"
New-AzureRmResource -ResourceId ("/subscriptions/{0}/resourceGroups/{1}/providers/microsoft.devtestlab/schedules/shutdown-computevm-{2}" -f (Get-AzureRmContext).Subscription.Id, $rg, $vm.Name) -Location $vm.Location -Properties $properties -Force
else {
    write-output "$($vm.Name) is already set to auto shutdown"

As you can see I am using some “write-output”s in the code. How can I see them with our having to naviagate to the histroy of the job? Log Analytics! To enable Auzre Automation to write to Log Analytics:

And here is a Kusto query to see the output of the Automation Job

| where ResourceProvider == "MICROSOFT.AUTOMATION"
| where RunbookName_s == "MyJobName" 
| where Category == "JobLogs" or  Category == "JobStreams" 
| order by TimeGenerated 
| project TimeGenerated,CorrelationId,RunbookName_s,ResultDescription,ResultType
| where TimeGenerated > now() - 1d

Now you can setup an Logic App too run the Kusto query and email you the results!

Note: This will set all your VMs to Auto-Shutdown. Make sure you don’t run this against your production environment!

Hope that helps someone.


Moving to the new (and future) Azure PowerShell Module : Az

It looks like we need to move to the new Az module. It is not required, but future functionality will not be added to AzureRM, so I decided to make the switch. Here is how I went about it.

First, to enable backwards compatibility, you need to add this command to your profile : “Enable-AzureRmAlias” . You can edit your profile and append the line by:

notepad $profile

or you can just append it by:

Add-Content $profile "`nEnable-AzureRmAlias"

(remeber ISE has it’s own $profile so you may need to modify it too)

Once you have “Enable-AzureRmAlias” in your profile, all your old scripts should still work.

Next, I wanted to remove all the old AzureRM modules. I had several versions installed, so it took a long time! Note: this code removes any module that starts with Azure*

foreach ($module in (Get-Module -ListAvailable Azure*).Name) {
    write-host "Removing Module $module"
    Uninstall-module $module -Force

Now that we are feeling clean, add the new module:

Install-Module Az

For some reason it didn’t install the new Az resource graph module so I added it:

Install-Module Az.ResourceGraph

I am ready for the future. Hope that helps someone.


Code to query Azure Load Balancer Metrics to verify Availability (VipAvailability )

This one was fun to put together.

I wanted to write code to query the status of an Azure Load Balancer. I couldn’t find much out there. This code query’s the Azure Load Balancer’s Metrics for VipAvailability – through the REST API. If it returns 100 then are good to go. Anyting else, then there may be a issue. You can query any metric, and you can set a time range, I am just looking at the last min.

Note: This is for a Standard Load Balancer, not Basic.

Some of the Metrics Available:

VipAvailability : Average count of availability of VIP endpoints, based on probe results.
DipAvailability : Average count of availability of DIP endpoints, based on probe results.
ByteCount : Total number of bytes processed per front-end.
PacketCount : Total number of packets processed per front-end.
SynCount : Total number of SYN packets received.
SnatConnectionCount : Total number of new SNAT connections, that is, outbound connections that are masqueraded to the Public IP address front-end.

And the same metrics are often referred to by different names (this was confusing to me):

value               localizedValue                
-----               --------------                
VipAvailability     Data Path Availability        
DipAvailability     Health Probe Status           
ByteCount           Byte Count                    
PacketCount         Packet Count                  
SYNCount            SYN Count                     
SnatConnectionCount SNAT Connection Count         
AllocatedSnatPorts  Allocated SNAT Ports (Preview)
UsedSnatPorts       Used SNAT Ports (Preview) 

Here is the code (bouns: BASH/cURL too) to find the VipAvaiablity of Azure Load Balancers:

$SubscriptionId = "$($env:SubscriptionId)"
$TenantId       = "$($env:TenantId)" 
$ClientID       = "$($env:ClientID)"      
$ClientSecret   = "$($env:ClientSecret)"  
$TenantDomain   = "$($env:TenantDomain)" 
$loginURL       = "$TenantId/oauth2/token"
$resource      = "" 
$resourceGroupName = "eastUS-01"
$body           = @{grant_type="client_credentials";resource=$resource;client_id=$ClientID;client_secret=$ClientSecret}
$oauth          = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -Uri $loginURL -Body $body
$headerParams = @{'Authorization'="$($oauth.token_type) $($oauth.access_token)"}

$filter = "(name.value eq 'VipAvailability') and aggregationType eq 'Average' and startTime eq $start and endTime eq $end and timeGrain eq duration'PT1M'"
$url = "$SubscriptionId/resourceGroups/$resourceGroupName/providers/Microsoft.Network/loadBalancers/jemurphyLB01/providers/microsoft.insights/metrics?`$filter=${filter}&api-version=2016-09-01"
$results=Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $url -Headers $headerParams -Method Get
$results.value | select -ExpandProperty data | select timestamp,average


TOKEN=$(curl --silent --request POST $LOGINURL --data-urlencode "resource=" --data-urlencode "client_id=$CLIENTID" --data-urlencode "grant_type=client_credentials" --data-urlencode "client_secret=$CLIENTSECRET" | jq -r '.access_token')

STARTTIME=$(date -u +'%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:00' --date='-1 min')
ENDTIME=$(date -u +'%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:00')

FILTER="(name.value eq 'VipAvailability') and aggregationType eq 'Average' and startTime eq $STARTTIME and endTime eq $ENDTIME and timeGrain eq duration'PT1M'"

RESULTS=$(curl -s -G --header "authorization: Bearer $TOKEN" --data-urlencode "\$filter=$FILTER" --data-urlencode "api-version=2016-09-01" $URL | jq .value[].data[].average)

echo "$RESULTS"

I think the hardest part was trying to get the date and time in the right format. Why is that so hard?

This HAS to be helpful to some one!


Using Azure Traffic Manager with IP White-listed resources

The question was, how can you use Azure Traffic Manager if the destinations are restricted with IP white lists?
This is the only way I could find:

  1. There is a blob that contains the source IPs of the probes. Here is the file, And here is the reference
  2. This list would need to be queried often because I couldn’t find any indication of when it would be updated
  3. I wrote PowerShell to parse the results and put it into an NSG.

$RGName= "Your RG Name"
$NSGName = "Your NSG Name"
$NSGRuleName = "Your Rule Name"
$Priority = 120
$DestinationPortRange = 443
$results=Invoke-RestMethod -Uri $url
foreach ($address in $results.ipv4_prefixes){
$allAddresses += $address.ip_prefix
# for some reason, get-AzureRmNetworkSecurityRuleConfig errors out if there is no matchin name
# could use a try - catch
if  ((Get-AzureRmNetworkSecurityGroup -ResourceGroupName $RGName -Name $NSGName | get-AzureRmNetworkSecurityRuleConfig -Name $NSGRuleName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue) -eq $null){
# Creating RUle
Get-AzureRmNetworkSecurityGroup -ResourceGroupName $RGName -Name $NSGName | `
Add-AzureRmNetworkSecurityRuleConfig -Name $NSGRuleName -Description "Allow Probe from ATM" -Access Allow -Protocol Tcp -Direction Inbound -Priority $Priority -SourceAddressPrefix $allAddresses -SourcePortRange * -DestinationAddressPrefix * -DestinationPortRange $DestinationPortRange | Set-AzureRmNetworkSecurityGroup
else {
# Updating Rule
Get-AzureRmNetworkSecurityGroup -ResourceGroupName $RGName -Name $NSGName | `
Set-AzureRmNetworkSecurityRuleConfig -Name $NSGRuleName -Description "Allow Probe from ATM" -Access Allow -Protocol Tcp -Direction Inbound -Priority $Priority -SourceAddressPrefix $allAddresses -SourcePortRange * -DestinationAddressPrefix * -DestinationPortRange $DestinationPortRange | Set-AzureRmNetworkSecurityGroup

Hope that helps.


PowerShell to move a VM to a new Log Analytics WorkSpace

This code uninstalls the Microsoft Monitoring agent and re-installs it to a new WorkSpace.

# change your VM Name and it's resource group
$vm = get-azurermvm -VMName YourVMName -ResourceGroupName VMResourceGroup
Remove-AzureRmVMExtension -ResourceGroupName $vm.ResourceGroupName -VMName $vm.Name -Name MicrosoftMonitoringAgent -Force
# put in your new workspaceId & workspaceKey
$workspaceId = "NewWorksSpaceID"
$workspaceKey = "SupaSecretKey"

$PublicSettings = @{"workspaceId" = $workspaceId;"stopOnMultipleConnections" = $false}
$ProtectedSettings = @{"workspaceKey" = $workspaceKey}

Set-AzureRmVMExtension -ExtensionName "MicrosoftMonitoringAgent" -ResourceGroupName $vm.resourcegroupname -VMName $ `
-Publisher "Microsoft.EnterpriseCloud.Monitoring" `
-ExtensionType "MicrosoftMonitoringAgent" `
-TypeHandlerVersion 1.0 `
-Settings $PublicSettings `
-ProtectedSettings $ProtectedSettings `
-Location $vm.Location

Nothing special, just thought I would put it here. Mayby it will help someone?


Use the REST API to create a new Project in Azure DevOps

As the title says, I wanted to create a new project in VSTS / Azure DevOps, whatever you want to call it. Here is the code to do that. You need a Personal Access Token to authenticate with.

$base64authinfo = [Convert]::ToBase64String([Text.Encoding]::ASCII.GetBytes(("{0}:{1}" -f $User, $PAT)))
$body = @"
  "name": "FabrikamTravel",
  "description": "Frabrikam travel app for Windows Phone",
  "capabilities": {
    "versioncontrol": {
      "sourceControlType": "Git"
    "processTemplate": {
      "templateTypeId": "6b724908-ef14-45cf-84f8-768b5384da45"
Invoke-RestMethod -Method POST -ContentType application/json -Uri $url -Headers @{Authorization=("Basic {0}" -f $base64authinfo)} -Body $Body

Hope that helps someone?


Using PowerShell to query Azure Log Analytics via the REST API

I wanted to pull some data out of Azure Log Analytics using PowerShell and the REST API. Here is the code to Pull all errors in the Application event logs on VMs that are pushing their logs into Log Analytics via MicrosoftMonitoringAgent.

Hopefully this may help someone:

$SubscriptionId = "$($env:SubscriptionId)"
$TenantId       = "$($env:TenantId)" 
$ClientID       = "$($env:ClientID)"      
$ClientSecret   = "$($env:ClientSecret)"  
$TenantDomain   = "$($env:TenantDomain)" 
$loginURL       = "$TenantId/oauth2/token"
$resource       = ""         

$body           = @{grant_type="client_credentials";resource=$resource;client_id=$ClientID;client_secret=$ClientSecret}
$oauth          = Invoke-RestMethod -Method Post -Uri $loginURL -Body $body
$headerParams = @{'Authorization'="$($oauth.token_type) $($oauth.access_token)"}

$Workspacename="Your WS Name"
$WorkspaceId="Your WS ID"

$body = @{query = 'Event | where EventLog == "Application" | order by TimeGenerated asc | project Computer,EventLog,Source,EventLevelName,EventID,RenderedDescription,TimeGenerated'} | ConvertTo-Json
$webresults=Invoke-RestMethod -UseBasicParsing -Headers $headerParams -Uri $url -Method Post -Body $body -ContentType "application/json"


  1. I keep my subscription information in Env Varaibles. It is easier for me to swtich to a different Tenant
  2. ¬†This returns the results in tables. To move the tables into an object look at this person’s code at line 60¬†
  3. My interpretation of code in #2
$resultsTable=$webresults.Content | ConvertFrom-Json
$count = 0
foreach ($table in $resultsTable.Tables) {
$count += $table.Rows.Count
$results = New-Object object[] $count
$i = 0;
foreach ($table in $resultsTable.Tables) {
    foreach ($row in $table.Rows) {
        # Create a dictionary of properties
        $properties = @{}
        for ($columnNum=0; $columnNum -lt $table.Columns.Count; $columnNum++) {
            $properties[$table.Columns[$columnNum].name] = $row[$columnNum]
        $results[$i] = (New-Object PSObject -Property $properties)
        $null = $i++


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