Tag Archives | PowerShell

PowerShell wrapper scripts for Exchange 2010 – first step: make a connection

As I talked about in this previous post, I like to write wrapper scripts that collect input and pass it along to the actual provided functions. I call these wrapper scripts because they are not really doing anything ground breaking, they are just a series of conditionals and commands that I put together, with a common naming convention. Then, all we have to do is tab completion through the scripts that I have written.

I wanted to do the same for creating new distribution groups in Exchange 2010, but first ,I needed to make  the Exchange 2010 PowerShell functions available on our local machines. I wrote the following function that starts a PSSession on the exchange server. This function will be called at the beginning of every Exchange wrapper script, guaranteeing that we have a connection to the Exchange PowerShell functions.

Here is that function:

if(! (Get-PSSession | Where-Object { $_.ComputerName -like "servername.company.com" })){
Write-Host "Createing PSSession to SVNYEXCH01.SARDVERB.LOCAL" -ForegroundColor Green
Import-PSSession (New-PSSession -Configurationname Microsoft.Exchange –ConnectionUri http://servername.company.com/powershell) | out-null

PowerShell script to email users if password expires soon, and send a summary to IT

I wanted to expand on my previous script: powershell-to-list-all-users-and-when-their-password-expires, so that it would send the user an email if their password was going to expire soon. Additionally I wanted to send a summary to our IT staff of accounts that were going to expire soon.

Here is that script:

$summarybody="Name `t ExpireDate `t DaysToExpire `n"

(Get-ADUser -filter {(Description -notlike "IfYouWantToExclude*") -and (Enabled -eq "True") -and (PasswordNeverExpires -eq "False")} -properties *) | Sort-Object pwdLastSet |
foreach-object {

$daystoexpire=[math]::round((New-TimeSpan -Start $(Get-Date) -End $expires).TotalDays)
if ($daystoexpire -le 3){

	$emailFrom = "from@yourdomain.com"
	$emailTo = "$samname@yourdomain.com"
	$subject = "$firstname, your password expires in $daystoexpire day(s)"
	$body = "$firstname,
	Your password expires in $daystoexpire day(s).

	Please press Ctrl + Alt + Del -> Change password"

	$smtpServer = "smtp.yourdomain.com"
	$smtp = new-object Net.Mail.SmtpClient($smtpServer)
	$smtp.Send($emailFrom, $emailTo, $subject, $body)

	$summarybody += "$samname `t $expires `t $daystoexpire `n"
if ($ThereAreExpiring) {
$emailFrom = "from@yourdomain.com"
$emailTo = "ITSTAFF@yourdomain.com"
$subject = "Expiring passwords"
$body = $summarybody
$smtpServer = "smtp.yourdomain.com"
$smtp = new-object Net.Mail.SmtpClient($smtpServer)
$smtp.Send($emailFrom, $emailTo, $subject, $body)

PowerShell Active Directory wrapper scripts.

In my PowerShell profile I have a routine the sources all the *.ps1 files in a folder. One of these .ps1 files contains Active Directory “wrapper” functions. I call them “wrapper” functions because they simplify the parameters needed to return data in a format we want. The idea is that I can write a series of “wrapper” scripts, alias them, and then everyone on our team can use the same script. All a user has to do is type “jbmurphy” (if that is the script starts with) and hit TAB  and the command completion will cycle through all the wrapper scripts. Some of the scripts are not much different than the actual “wrapped” script, but there usually is simplified formatting to just dump the needed info. Here are two wrapper scripts to interact with ActiveDirectory (AD).

First one finds users in a group:

function jbmurphy-GetGroupMembers {
    return Get-ADGroupMember $GroupName | ft -hidetableheaders name

Second one finds the groups a users is a member of:

function jbmurphy-AD-GetGroupMembership {
   $user=Get-ADUser -properties memberof $UserName
   return $user.MemberOf -replace '^cn=([^,]+).+$','$1'

PowerShell script to silently install RSAT 2008 R2 SP1

I often re-image my machine – that way I know my SCCM OSD is working properly and has the most recent “secondary apps” (Reader,Flash,FireFox . . .). Because I am always re-imaging, I like to automate installing the software I always need like Remote Server Administration Tools – RSAT. I wanted a function to install the software and automatically add all the features. Below is that script:

function Install-RSAT {
$ScriptPath = "\\server\sahre\path\to\RAST\installers\"
Set-Location $ScriptPath

$os=(Get-WMIObject win32_operatingsystem).OSArchitecture
$sp=(Get-WmiObject Win32_OperatingSystem).CSDVersion
if (($os -eq "64-bit") -and ($sp -eq "")) {$files = get-childitem -recurse -filter amd64*.msu}
if (($os -eq "32-bit") -and ($sp -eq "")) {$files = get-childitem -recurse -filter x86*.msu}
if (($os -eq "64-bit") -and ($sp -eq "Service Pack 1")) {$files = get-childitem -recurse -filter *KB958830*amd64*.msu}
if (($os -eq "32-bit") -and ($sp -eq "Service Pack 1")) {$files = get-childitem -recurse -filter *KB958830*x86*.msu}

foreach ($file in $files)
Start-Process -wait -FilePath "C:\WINDOWS\SYSTEM32\wusa.exe" -ArgumentList "$file.FullName /quiet /norestart"

DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-AD /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-AD-DS /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-AD-DS-SnapIns /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-AD-DS-AdministrativeCenter /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-AD-DS-NIS /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-AD-LDS /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-AD-Powershell /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-ServerManager /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-CertificateServices /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-CertificateServices-CA /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-CertificateServices-OnlineResponder /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-DHCP /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-DNS /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-FileServices /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-FileServices-Dfs /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-FileServices-Fsrm /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-FileServices-StorageMgmt /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-HyperV /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Roles-RDS /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-BitLocker /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-Clustering /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-GP /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-LoadBalancing /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-SmtpServer /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-StorageExplorer /Quiet /NoRestart
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-StorageManager
DISM /online /Enable-Feature /FeatureName:RemoteServerAdministrationTools-Features-Wsrm

PowerShell to set ACLs that prevent renaming of top-level directories in a share

We have a shared folder that is replicated to all our sites using the fantastic GlobalScape WAFS (@GlobalScape). This folder is huge.

People go into the folder, and “type ahead” to get the subfolder they want,  but what keeps happening (and I am sure you have seen this) is that when users click and try to type ahead, they don’t realize that they have clicked a folder and their “type ahead” is actually renaming the folder. We end up with a lot of folders named “p” or “j” or “m”. Everyone has full access to the folder and all files/folders below. The impact is that when a large folder gets renamed, this has to be replicated across the country via WAFS, which is slowing down the other offices.

To solve this I had to sit down and figure out ACLs and using PowerShell to change them. The security on the top-level folders are inherited from above, and they are simple: Administrator = FULL, System = Full, Creator Owner = Modify, and BUILTIN\USERS = Modify.

The script below, loops through the top-level folders (in this case just the A’s) and  copies the inherited permissions to the folder. Next it sets the folder so it does not inherit permission from the folder above (Lines 1 – 6). Then, the script  creates an ACL rule that removes the BUILTIN\USERS = Modify ACL (Line  8 ). Finally it creates 2 ACL rules that add, for BUILTIN\USERS,  “ReadAndExecute” for “This folder only” and a “Modify” for “Subfolder and files below” (Lines 9 – 10).

And this is what the result looks like:

PowerShell script:

Get-ChildItem a* | Where {$_.psIsContainer -eq $true} | foreach {
$filename = $_
write-host "Changing $_"
$objACL=Get-ACL $filename
set-acl $filename $objACL

$RMAccessRule = New-Object Security.AccessControl.FileSystemAccessRule("BUILTIN\Users",@("Modify", "Synchronize"),"ContainerInherit, ObjectInherit","None","Allow")
$AddAccessRule1 = New-Object Security.AccessControl.FileSystemAccessRule("BUILTIN\Users",@("ReadAndExecute", "Synchronize"),"None","None","Allow")
$AddAccessRule2 = New-Object Security.AccessControl.FileSystemAccessRule("BUILTIN\Users",@("Modify, Synchronize"),"ContainerInherit, ObjectInherit","InheritOnly","Allow")

$objACL=Get-ACL $filename
set-acl $filename $objACL

PowerShell, Event Triggers, MailboxMoves and email notification

We are in the process of moving our Mailboxes from Exchange 2003 to Exchange 2010. I am using this script to automate the moves. I wanted to find a way to get an email notification when the move is complete. I figured I could keep the PowerShell script  running in a “while loop” until Get-MailBoxMoveStatistics reports “Completed”, but I wanted to write a more generic notification script.

One of the features that I had been itching to play with in 2008 is the “attach a task to this event”, so I wrote the following generic PowerShell script to receive a set of values from a triggered event. This could be used for any event that you can attach a task to. Big picture is that I am passing the event id to the script, and then using PowerShell to query the event log to get the rest of the log entry. This is then emailed.

Before we get to the script, by default, the scheduled task created by the wizard does not pass any values to the script it is running. I found this article that described how to modify your “Event Viewer Task” to pass values to the attached action. Use the method he describes to export the task and the re-import with the following :

        <Value name="eventData">Event/EventData/Data</Value>
        <Value name="eventRecordID">Event/System/EventRecordID</Value>

The actual command that is attached to the event is:

C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -command SendEventRecord.ps1 -subject "MailBox Move Completed" -eventid $(eventRecordID)

And here is the PowerShell script called SendEventRecord.ps1. This script received paramaters from the command above. This script uses the eventRecordID in the event log item to look up the actual error and email the contents.

Param($Subject, $Body,$EventID)

$Body += Get-EventLog -LogName Application | Where-Object {$_.Index -eq $EventID} | fl | out-string

$emailFrom = "user@domain.com"
$emailTo = "user@domain.com"
$emailsubject = $Subject
$emailbody = $Body
$smtpServer = "server.ip.address"
$smtp = new-object Net.Mail.SmtpClient($smtpServer)
$smtp.Send($emailFrom, $emailTo, $emailsubject, $emailbody)

Now, when a 1107 appears in the event log, the eventRecordID is passed to a PowerShell script that looks up the record/event and emails it to the right people! I like this one.

PowerShell to assign Exchange 2010 Retention Policies based on AD group membership

In exchange 2003 we maintained a 6 month and 12 month purge policy that was applied based on group membership. I described that configuration here. I wanted to migrate our purge policies to the new 2010 Recipient policies. I needed to find the members of an AD group and assign a retention policy to their mailbox. Here is my script:

Get-ADGroupMember mailboxpurge-6m | foreach {
if ((get-mailbox $_.samaccountname).ServerName -eq "server01" -OR (get-mailbox $_.samaccountname).ServerName -eq "server02" )
write-host "User" + $_.samaccountname + "'s current policy is: " + (get-mailbox $_.samaccountname).RetentionPolicy
set-mailbox $_.samaccountname -RetentionPolicy 6MonthPurge

Scheduled PowerShell script to resume Mailbox Moves (New-MoveRequest)

Moving mailboxes from 2003 to 2010 is easy, but there is not a “Gui” to schedule it. So I created the following PowerShell script to find all the suspended MoveRequest(s) with the correct date, and resume them.

$TodaysDate = (get-date).day.ToString() + (get-date -format MMMM)
Get-MoveRequest -MoveStatus Suspended | Get-MoveRequestStatistics | Where {$_.BatchName -like "*$TodaysDate*"} | Resume-MoveRequest

Next I create a scheduled task with the following command to run a script with the code above:

C:\Windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\powershell.exe -command ". 'C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange Server\V14\bin\RemoteExchange.ps1'; Connect-ExchangeServer -auto; c:\Scripts\MailboxMove.ps1"

Now when I create a New-MoveRequest,

New-MoveRequest -Identity username -TargetDatabase MailboxDatabase02 -BatchName "19August" -BadItemLimit 10 -Suspend

I know that a scheduled task will resume the move a the correct time.

To monitor progress, I have been using this script:

Get-MoveRequest  | Get-MoveRequestStatistics | ft -auto alias,Status,TotalMailboxSize,PercentComplete,TargetDatabase,TotalInProgressDuration,BytesTransferred,BatchName

PowerShell Function to get uptime on multiple computers

I wanted to create a function that I could use to find the uptime of several workstations. I did not want to read a list of machine name from csv, I just wanted pass a list of workstation names and get their uptime back. I also added a ping check to make sure the machine is alive.


Function Get-Computer-LastBootTime {
$Args | ForEach-Object -Process {
$ping = gwmi Win32_PingStatus -Filter ("Address='" + $_ + "'") | Select-Object StatusCode
if ($ping.statusCode -eq 0) {

$wmi = gwmi Win32_OperatingSystem -EA silentlycontinue -ComputerName $_
$localdatetime = $wmi.ConvertToDateTime($wmi.LocalDateTime)
$lastbootuptime = $wmi.ConvertToDateTime($wmi.LastBootUpTime)
$uptime = $localdatetime - $lastbootuptime
echo "$_ uptime: $days days $hours hours $mins mins"

else {
echo "$_ is offline"

Powershell script to install Cygwin

I like having Cygwin installed on my machine, and since I always re-image, I needed a script to install Cygwin automatically.

function Install-Cygwin {
   param ( $TempCygDir="$env:temp\cygInstall" )
   if(!(Test-Path -Path $TempCygDir -PathType Container))
       $null = New-Item -Type Directory -Path $TempCygDir -Force
   $client = new-object System.Net.WebClient
   $client.DownloadFile("http://cygwin.com/setup.exe", "$TempCygDir\setup.exe" )
   Start-Process -wait -FilePath "$TempCygDir\setup.exe" -ArgumentList "-q -n -l $TempCygDir -s http://mirror.nyi.net/cygwin/ -R c:\Cygwin"
   Start-Process -wait -FilePath "$TempCygDir\setup.exe" -ArgumentList "-q -n -l $TempCygDir -s http://mirror.nyi.net/cygwin/ -R c:\Cygwin -P openssh"

This will download and install Cygwin and install the openssh package.

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